Sociology 101H

Study Guide: Exam 3

 

Chapter 7:  Global Stratification

 

  • Define social stratification and explain why it is important to the study of behavior and society.
  • Describe the characteristics of slavery and its past and present use in societies.
  • Describe the features of a caste system and compare these to the characteristics of a class system.
  • Discuss theories which explain the existence of stratification in a society.
    • Describe the basic assumption that Marx makes regarding the basis of social class.
    • Summarize Weber’s views regarding social class position.
    • State the basic assumptions of functionalists like Davis and Moore.
      • Describe Tumin’s criticism of these assumptions.
    • Describe Mosca’s argument about stratification in societies
    • Explain how Lenski combined functionalism and conflict theories

                

  • Explain the mechanisms by which elites maintain stratification.
  • Explain and describe the system of global stratification used today.

 

Chapter 8: Social Class in American Society

 

  • Using examples (like the video shown in class or the neighborhood in which you live), describe examples of criteria which are used to distinguish social class in American society.
  • Distinguish between wealth, power, and prestige; 
  • Discuss the consequences of social class on family life, education, religion, politics, physical health and mental health
  • Describe the three types of social mobility and distinguish between them.
    • Exchange
    • Intergenerational
    • Structural

 

  • Describe absolute and relative definitions of poverty
  • Describe how the US government defines poverty and understand the implications of that definition
  • Describe those most at risk to live in poverty in American society.
  • Compare structural definitions of poverty to individual explanations of poverty.
  • Describe recent changes in welfare policy in the U.S.
    • Welfare Reform Act of 1996

 

Chapter 9: Inequalities of Race & Ethnicity

 

n  Distinguish between race and ethnicity.

n  Explain why race is considered a social construction, but is still an important concept (or is it?) in understanding social behavior.

n  Know what is meant by ethnic identity -- the 4 factors that heighten or reduce it – and ethnic work.

n  Describe the characteristics of minority groups and dominant groups.

n  Define prejudice & discrimination, and compare different levels of discrimination : individual and institutional.

n  Understand psychological (frustration-aggression and scapegoating, and authoritarian personality) as well as sociological theories (structural functionalism, social conflict – split labor force – and symbolic interaction – selective perception) of prejudice.

n  List the six patterns of intergroup relations that develop between dominant & minority groups & give an example of each.

n  Compare and contrast immigration experiences today with that of past.

n  Discuss the major issues that currently dominate racial & ethnic relations in the United States, including issues of immigration, legal and illegal and affirmative action.

 

Chapter 10: Inequalities of Gender (pages 261-282)

 

l  Define sex, gender, and gender stratification.

l  Discuss biological and cultural factors which explain behavioral gender differences.

l  Explain how people’s lives are affected by these social facts.

l  Analyze whether or not females fit the characteristics of  a minority group.

l  Explain gender relations in the workplace, including the meaning of  quiet revolution,”  “pay gap,”  “glass ceiling,”  “glass escalator,” and “sexual harassment.”

l  Assess changes in structural conditions in US society during the last 75 years that have had a major impact on the status of women.

l  Discuss how the dominant group (males) are disadvantaged by discrimination against women.

 

 

Chapter 11: The Economy (pages 309 – 325)

 

n  Explain the characteristics of social institutions and give examples

n  Describe the economic social institution and discuss why it is important to our lives

n  State the essential features of capitalism and socialism; describe advantages and disadvantages of each, and explain the “convergence hypothesis.”

n  Discuss how the type of economic system changed with different structures of societies.

n  Describe the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy.

n  Explain what makes a postindustrial society different from an industrial society.

n  Describe trends in the American economic system and the changes that make the workplace different from for the worker from that of 30 years ago.

n  Define corporate capitalism, corporations, interlocking directorates, and multinational corporations.

n  Analyze the impact of the changing workplace on workers 

 

 

Chapter 12 will not be on the exam.

 

 

The following are questions from the groups; some of these will be used on the last exam (maybe the wording will be changed a little J)

 

Aging:

 

1.     Ageism is a term that:

a.     Only describes the discrimination against individuals over the age of 65

b.     Describes the subjective experience implied in the popular notion of the generation gap which might include prejudice, discrimination, and hostility to certain groups

c.      Is used to describe the biological process of aging

 

2.     The theory of “gerotranscendence” developed by Swed sociologist Lars Tornstam states that as people grow old they:

a.     Begin to see things in black and white

b.     Develop more subtle ways of viewing right and wrong

c.      Tolerate more ambiguity

d.     All of the above

 

3.     Which of the following is true of attitudes toward the aged, according to the concept of the social construction of aging?

a.     Attitudes toward aging are originally the same in every society

b.     They vary from society to society because perspectives toward aging are socially constructed

c.      In every society, younger generation always show the respect for their elderly

 

Health Care: Symbolic Interaction perspective:

 

4.     Which of the following is NOT one of the three aspects of social organization of medicine?

a.     Development of expensive technology accompanied by the patients’ demand of the latest treatment

b.     A preoccupation with last minute intervention rather than prevention

c.      The frequency of when patients visit their doctors

d.     The view that medical care is a commodity sold for profit.

 

5.     Iatrogenesis is defined as:

a.     Injuries caused by medical care

b.     The infant mortality rate

c.      Diagnosis of mental illness

d.     A drug used in caesarian sections

 

6.     Why are infant mortality and life expectancy rates better in other countries than in America?

a.     In other industrialized countries, babies come from storks

b.     Poor living quality, food, stability and overall poverty in America

c.      Because most industrialized countries create industries to manufacture babies

d.     Because other countries use less abortions

 

Aging: Functionalist and Conflict Perspectives

 

7.     What is the theory that examines how people adjust when they disengage from productive roles?

a.     Disengagement theory

b.     Continuity theory

c.      Activity theory

 

8.     Which theory focuses on how people with multiple roles carry one or more of these roles into retirement?

a.     Continuity theory

b.     Differential association theory

c.      Labeling theory

 

9.     Before 1986, what age were elderly people required to retire by the social security legislation?

a.     60 years old

b.     65 years old

c.      55 years old

 

Religion: symbolic interaction perspective

 

10.                        Why is a symbol a condensed way of communicating?

a.     It is easier to understand than regular communicating

b.     Symbols are not easily recognizable and interfere with communication

c.      Beliefs are more quickly distinguished when using symbols

d.     Certain symbols tell you something about the group displaying it

e.      None of the above

 

11.                        What does the term “born again” refer to?

a.     The reincarnation theory

b.     A life transforming religious experience

c.      A ritual performed by many religious groups

d.     a. and b. above

e.      none of the above

 

12.                        Rituals develop from what?

a.     Beliefs

b.     Values

c.      a. and b.

d.     cults

e.      none of the above

 

Social Movements:

 

13.                        Which of the following is NOT an example of a social movement?

a.     Animal Rights movement

b.     Women’s Rights movement

c.      Civil Rights movement

d.     Hispanic rights

e.      Moving a friend into his new apartment

 

14.                        Why did Anglo-Americans think it was acceptable to take over Mexican territory?

a.     God’s divine plan

b.     Mexicans offered it to them

c.      Treaty of Versailles

d.     All of the above

 

15.                        In what year did Garrison begin publishing his newspaper?

a.     1820

b.     1831

c.      1870

d.     1885

 

Importance of Family

 

16.                        The following are ideas of symbolic interactionist perspective on family, which of the statements is false?

a.     Gendered division of labor does not occur

b.     Children are getting less attention from parents than they used to

c.      Women are spending more time on housework

d.     All of the following are false

 

17.                        Concerning social class and child rearing, all of these are true of the differences between working-class and middle-class styles of raising children except:

a.     Working-class parents usually believe that children develop naturally

b.     Middle-class parents typically let their children choose their own leisure activities

c.      Their type of work parents do affects how they rear their child

d.     Middle-class parents are more likely to withdraw privileges or affection as punishment

 

18.                        Which of the following is not part of the six basic needs of survival of every society?

a.     Economic production

b.     Care of the sick and aged

c.      Recreation

d.     Industrialization

 

Religion: Functionalism and Conflict Theories

 

19.                        What is not a function of religion?

a.     Provides guidelines on how to live

b.     Learn how to make an economic gain

c.      Sets limits on people’s behavior

 

20.                        What is a negative result of the functions of religion?

a.     People don’t follow the religion

b.     People don’t know what to do with their life

c.      Terrorist acts are sometimes carried in the name of teligion

 

21.                        What is a religion’s primary means of retaining its status?

a.     Control food selection of congregation

b.     Reinforcing ideologies

c.      Fundaraisers

 

Health Care: Functionalist and Conflict perspective

 

22.                        What is/are the reason(s) why the United States’ life expectancy rates are worse than the other nations?

a.     Poverty

b.     Stress

c.      Emotional problems

d.     Suffered more accidents and violence

e.      All of the above

 

23.                        With health care viewed as a commodity rather than a right, the United States has developed a _______________________.

a.     Two types of medical care

b.     One type of medical care

c.      Five-class system of medical care

d.     No class system of medical care

e.      Two-class system of medical care

 

24.                        The functionality of health care is indicated by ____________________________.

a.     The ability to choose your doctor

b.     The decrease in life expectancy and the decrease in infant mortality

c.      The fee-for-service system

d.     The rising life expectancy and the decrease in infant mortality

e.      The development of expensive technology

 

Education: Functionalist and Conflict perspective

 

25.                        What is the hidden curriculum?

a.     Refers to the unwritten goals of schools, such as teaching obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms

b.     The process by which education opens and closes doors of opportunity; another term for the social placement function of education

c.      A function education --  funneling people into a society’s various positions

d.     Robert Merton’s term for an originally false assertion that becomes true simply because it was predicted.

 

26.                        Which one of these terms occurred during the Rist Research?

a.     Gatekeeping

b.     Tracking

c.      Self-fulfilling prophecy

d.     Social placement

 

27.                        George Farkas’ research on teacher expectations found that students of which gender and race were the best at sending good “signals” that their teachers were looking for?

a.     Boys and Asian Americans

b.     Girls and Asian Americans

c.      Boys and Europeans

d.     Girls and Europeans

 

Self-Esteem:

 

28.                        The topic of self-esteem was discussed in relation to which three organizations?

a.     AA, BSA, LGBT

b.     AARP, AAA, GSA

c.      SBC, AWANA, The Rotary Club

d.     NAACP, MLB, DMV

 

29.                        Low self esteem contributes to which of the following behaviors?

a.     Substance abuse and eating disorders

b.     Violence and crime

c.      Narcolepsy

d.     Both a. and b.

 

30.                        Mary Sue is a girl scout who is sexually attracted to the other girls in her troop; however, she is very insecure.  She doesn’t talk to anyone about it and eventually drops out of scouts and tries to drown her problems with alcohol.  From this we can infer that Mary Sue:

a.     Is of a low social status

b.     Has been discriminated against because she is a woman

c.      Has low self-esteem

d.     Knows how to have a good time

 

31.                        Jonny is a boy scout who thinks he is never going to attain the rank of Eagle Scout.  Every day he tells himself that it will never happen. Sure enough, Jonny never reaches Eagle.  This is an example of which of the following social phenomena?

a.     Stereotypes

b.     Self-fulfilling prophecy

c.      Ethnocentrism

d.     Law of self perception