El Camino College

Political Science 6 Review Sheets

 

Review sheet #1 Constitutional Interpretation

Legal Formalism

-Originalism-Original intent

-Literalism-plain meaning of the words

 

Legal Realists-competing ideas in a pluralistic system & changes over time

 

Natural Law-law exists outside of government

 

 Freedom of Speech

US v. Schenck (1919)

-creation of the Clear & Present danger test

 

US v. Abrams  (1919)

-significance of Justice Holmes dissent (free trade in ideas)

 

Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)

-create new standard to replace Clear and Present Danger test

-right of free speech except “where such advocacy is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action and is likely to incite or produce such action”

 

Freedom of Speech-Symbolic Expression

West Virginia Brd of Education v. Barnette (1943)

-refusal to salute the flag

 

US v. O’Brien (1968)

-burning of draft cards

 

Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1969)

-wearing black armbands

 

Morse v. Frederick (2007)

 

TX v. Johnson (1989)

-burning the flag

 

Hill v. Colorado (2000)

-protest restrictions at abortion clinics

 

Freedom of Speech-Fighting Words/Hate Speech

Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire (1942)

-first case for fighting words

 

Terminiello v. Chicago (1949)

 

Cohen v. CA (1971) 

 

RAV v. St. Paul (1992)

-hate speech ordinance, cross burning

 

Virginia v. Black (2003)

-hate speech ordinance but bans all types of hate speech

Review sheet #2

Freedom of Speech-Obscenity

Roth v. US (1957) (understand it as it relates to Miller)

 

Miller v. CA (1973)

-court creates Miller test which we still use today

1.  appeals to the prurient interest

2.  portrays sexual conduct in a patently offensive way

3.  lacks serious literary, artistic, political or scientific value (slaps)

1 & 2 use a local community standard, 3 uses a national standard

 

New York v. Ferber (1982)

-child pornography

 

Osborne v. Ohio (1990)

-child pornography prohibited

 

Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union (1997)

 

Ashcroft v Free Speech Coalition (2002)

-child pornography ok if children are not used or if it is computer generated

 

US v. Stevens (2010)

 

 Freedom of Speech-Freedom of Association

-private organizations retain their associational rights when:

1.  their core activities are exercised in conjunction with  1st Amendment freedoms or

2.  when the organization possesses the characteristics of an intimate club

 

Hurley v. Irish-American Gay, Lesbian, & Bisexual Group of Boston (1995)

-St. Patricks’s Day Parade

 

Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000)

  

Freedom of the Press

 Prior Restraint

Near v. Minnesota (1931)

 

NY Times v. US (1971)

-Pentagon Papers case which court creates but does not use the Prior restraint standard

 

 Libel

New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)

-creates the actual malice standard

 

Gertz v. Welch (1974)

-more clearly defined the public figure aspect of actual malice

 

Hustler Magazine v. Falwell (1988)

-Hustler Campari ad

 

Review sheet #3



















Freedom of Religion-Establishment Clause

Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)

Lemon Test-the law must (1) have a secular purpose, (2) can not advance or inhibit religion, (3) can not create excessive entanglements between government and religion.

 

Everson v. Board of Education (1947)

-busing student on public buses to religious schools

 

McCollum v. Board of Education (1948) 

 

Engel v. Vitale (1962)

-ban on prayer in school

 

Wallace v. Jaffree (1985)

-moment of silence prohibited

 

McCreary County v. ACLU (2005)

Van Orden v. Perry (2005)

-public displays of the Ten Commandments

Freedom of Religion-Free Exercise

Church of Lukumi babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah (1993)

-animal sacrifice by Santaria

 

Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)

-children limited to 8th grade education

 

 Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith

-peyote case


Search & Seizure

Olmstead v. US (1928)

 

Katz v. US (1967)

-telephone booth wire tapping

 

Terry v. Ohio (1968)

-stop and frisk

 

 Random searches

Michigan Dept of St. Police v. Sitz (1990)

-DUI stops

 

Florida v. Bostick (1991)

-Suspicionless search

 

Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton (1995)

-random drug testing for school athletes

 

Racial Profiling

Illinois v. Wardlow (2000)

 

 Exclusionary Rule

Weeks v. US-apply exclusionary rule on Federal level

Wolf v. Colorado-denied the exclusionary rule to the states but did state that states had some criminal protections

 

Mapp v. Ohio (1961)

-apply the exclusionary rule to the states

 

Exceptions-Christian burial case (Nix v. Williams (1984)), Goodfaith exception (US v. Leon (1984))

 

 Right to Counsel 

Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)


Miranda v. Arizona
(1966)

________________________________________________________________

Test #4

 

Right to Privacy 

Early foundations (Bell, Skinner) 

Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) –contraception is prohibited in Conn.  Planned Parenthood trying to get the laws changed

Abortion
Roe v. Wade (1973)
-follow a trimester system

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
(1989)
-MO law that cuts off state funding for abortions

Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
-Create new standard –undue burden
Looked at three factors:
-24 hour waiting period
-parental consent
-spousal consent

Stenberg v. Carhart
(2000)
Case dealing with partial birth abortion laws

Gonzales v. Carhart (2007) 


Sexual Preference
 

Bowers v. Hardwicke
(1986) 

Lawrence
v. Texas (2003)


Equal Protection
 

Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896)
-Separate but Equal Doctrine

McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents
(1950)-graduate school where facilities are segregated-missing out on the educational experience of networking

Brown v. Board of Education
(1954)
-separate is inherently unequal
-doll tests-first time used psychological evidence

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
(1971)

De jure & de facto segregation

Affirmative Action

Regents, University of California v. Bakke (1978)

-race can be a factor but not the sole determining factor

Bollinger v. Grutter/Gratz
(2003)

-University of Michigan case

Sex Discrimination 

Bradwell v. Illinois (1873)

Reed v. Reed (1971)-laws that give preference to men violate the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment (probate code treated women differently)

Craig v. Boren (1976)-different age limit for women buying “near beer”-continued to use the rational basis test

United States v. Virginia (1996)

-VMI’s (Virginia Military Institute) refusal to allow women to attend

To top of page

 
El Camino College, 16007 Crenshaw Blvd., Torrance, California 90506
Phone: 310-532-3760 Toll Free: 1-866-ELCAMINO (1-866-
352-2646)
Last Published 3/15/17