6.  Consolidation and Conflict in Europe:
     Christian Reform Movements


I. What are the Origins of the Protestant Reformation?

    A. Who was Martin Luther (1483-1546)?

         1. Augustan monk and theologian from Northern Germany

              who was concerned over his personal salvation even

              though he followed the requirements taught by the

              Church: faith, obedience to God’s commandments

               and Church law, good works, sacramental grace


         2. Eventually reassured by the Biblical passage:

               “The just shall live by faith”


         3. “95 Theses” (1517)

                 - objected to the sale of indulgences


        4. Luther’s criticisms resonated with those who

                were concerned with Church corruption:

                > secular interests of the Pope

                > practice of simony

                > poorly educated and morally lax clergy


    B. Why was Luther successful in challenging

        the authority of the Church?

         1. He had the protection of Frederick the Wise


         2. The slow reaction of the Pope and the Holy

                Roman Emperor, Charles V


         3. Appealed to the German Princes

                - religious concerns

                - nascent nationalism

                - economic concerns


         4. Peasants War (1524-1525)


    C. What reforms were adopted by the Lutheran


        1. Did away with the worship of saints and relics;

                pilgrimages; selling of indulgences and religious

                paraphernalia; sacraments not mentioned in the Bible


        2. Congregational participation in the Mass – singing of hymns


        3. Christians encouraged to read the Bible


        4. Monks and Nuns were free to marry


        5. Church structure was simplified: Bishops were the highest

                authority and the state was the protector


    D. How did Lutheranism spread and succeed in

         becoming established in the Holy Roman Empire?

        1. Luther’s writings:

             - essays on the Bible and Christian life


        2. Failure of Catholic resistance

             - HRE Charles V was unable to defeat Protestant forces

             - Peace of Augsberg (1555)

                    > allowed the ruler to decide the religion of his state


II. How Did Protestantism Spread in Europe and What

     Resistance Did It Encounter?  

     A. Anabaptists Rebellion - City of Münster

         - ruthlessly crushed (1524-1525)


    B. Switzerland

        - Zwingli (1484-1531)

        - War of religion ended with Zwingli’s death

        - the cantons were left free to choose between Catholicism and



    C. France – Calvinism

        1. Origins

            - John Calvin (1509-1564)

            - Predestination

            - Calvinism spread to:


                    France (Huguenots)

                    England (Puritans)

                    Scotland (Presbyterians)


        2. French Wars of Religion (1559-1589)

            - Henry IV: “Paris is worth a Mass”

            - Edict of Nantes (1598) – allowed the Huguenots  to practice

                their religion


    D. England- Church of England (Anglicanism)

        - Henry VIII (1509-1547)

        - Renounced Catholicism and the Pope to divorce his wife, Catherine

            of Aragon 

        - Act of Supremacy (1534) - passed by Parliament removing the

            Church in England from the authority of the Pope


III. How Did the Catholic Church Respond to the Spread

    of Protestantism?

    A. Council of Trent (1545-1563)

        - fundamental issues concerning doctrine or rituals were

            not addressed

        - Some changes instituted to improve the quality of the

            clergy, introduction of the catechism, index and inquisition


    B. New religious orders founded :

            - Dominicans, Franciscans and Jesuits


    C. New Churches built     - Baroque Style


IV. What was the last religious war in Europe?

    A. Thirty Years War (1618 -1648)

        1. Religious Phase

            - Began with an attempt by the Austrian Habsburgs

                to restore Catholicism to the Holy Roman Empire

                and to extend their Authority

           - The Holy Roman Emperor appointed the Catholic

                Archduke Ferdinand to succeed the throne of

                Protestant Bohemia


        2. Political Phase

            - France entered the conflict in1635 on the side of

                the Protestants in the hope of weakening the Spanish

                and Austrian Habsburgs and acquiring territory


    B. What was the outcome of the Thirty Years War?

        1. Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

             - Rulers could decide the religion of their territories,

                  but subjects who chose another religion would be tolerated

             - France gained Alsace-Lorraine


        2. Decline of the Holy Roman Empire

            - Austrian Habsburgs lost their authority over the Empire

                as the German territories gained the right to conduct

                their own foreign affairs

             - the very destructive war resulted n a slowdown of  German



        3. France emerged as the dominate European power




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