1. Early Human Societies and the Development of Sedentary Agriculture


I. Who Were the Earliest Humans and How Did They Populate the World?

    A. Earliest Man

            1. Hominids - appeared about c. 7 mya


            2. Hominins (a subdivision) appeared c. 2 mya


            3. Homo Sapiens (a subdivision) appeared

                   c. 400,000 years ago and remains the only human

                   species after 30,000  years ago


    B. Early Human Migrations

          - all continents but Antarctica populated by humans

                by 10,000 years ago


II. How Did Early Human Live?

    A. Late Paleolithic Culture (18,000 B.C.E.)

          1. Nomadic hunting, fishing, gathering bands


          2. Used stone tools and fire


          3. Developed ceramics and weaving


          4. Ability  to think and speak


          5. Capable of creating culture embodying a set

                of common ideas or beliefs institutions, and

                materials that could be passed on to later



          6. Religious Beliefs

                - burial sites

                - worship focused on a mother goddess?


          7. Artistic expression


    B. Transitional Period

         Early semi-permanent or permanent settlements:

           1. Central Russia (c. 18,000-10,000 B.C.E.)

                - supported by woolly mammoth, wild plants


          2. Natufian complex (c.10,500-8,000 B.C.E.)

                - supported by wild plants, later farming


III. How Did Some Human Societies Transition from Hunting and

      Gathering to Agricultural Societies?

    A. Neolithic Culture (c. 8,000-3,500 B.C.E.)

          - Development of systematic agriculture with

                the domestication of plants and animals in

                various parts of the world


    B. Earliest Development of Agriculture

          - in Mesopotamia between 10,000 and 9,000 B.C.E.

          - agriculture appeared elsewhere between

                10,000 and 1,000 B.C.E.


    C. Earliest Agricultural Communities

         - settlement in permanent communities

          1.  Jericho (c. 7,000 B.C.E.)


          2. Catal Hüyük (c. 7,200-6.000 B.C.E.)


IV. What Is the Significance of Sedentary Agriculture?

    A. It Enabled the Development of Civilizations (complex societies)

          - Civilizations are societies that generate and use

                   an economic surplus beyond basic survival needs.


    B. Some basic characteristics of civilizations:

          > Cities


          > Political and military structures


          > Religious institution


          > Increased complexity in material goods


          > Increased intellectual and artistic activity


          > Writing


          > Social differentiation


          > Patriarchy (a male dominated society)


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