9. China and Japan between the Wars


I. China: Nationalists and Communists

     A. Aftermath of the 1911

- Union League became the People’s National Party

       > Nationalists

- Sun Yat-sen was unable to gain control over much

      of the country which was dominated by local

      “war lords”


     B. Collaboration with the Communists Party

            1. Chinese Communist Party   (CCP) was founded

     in 1921

                 - its members joined the Nationalists

                 - Chiang Kai-shek succeeded Sun Yat-sen in

       1925 and campaigned against the northern war



    C. Turn Against the CCP

            1. Many Nationalists resented the CCP for

     compromises made by Sun Yat-Sen


            2. Chiang Kai-shek purged the Nationalists of

                 Communists > many were killed, others fled to



D. Mao Zedong (1893-1976)

            - CCP leader

            - gained the support of the peasants

            - built up the Red Army

            - the Long March (1934-  1936)

            - settled in Yanan where Mao continued to develop

     an interpretation of Marxism that represented

     Chinese experience


II. Japanese Invasion of China

    A. Foreign Policy

> Imperialistic Expansion

     - Sino Japanese War (1894-1895) >

Taiwan; Rijukyu Islands; Kwantung

Peninsula acquired

     - Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) >

vs. Russian expansion into Manchuria

                 - Korea annexed in 1910


    B. Invasion of China

-1931  Manchurian Crisis vs. Chinese nationalistic

                  assertion in the region; establishment of the

                  puppet state of Manchukuo

-1937 War with China due to Japan’s southward


- 1940 military alliance sealed with Germany and



C. Nationalists and CCP vs, Japan

- in 1937 the Nationalists and Communists joined

     together vs. the Japanese invaders, but hostilities



III. Chinese Civil War (1946-1949)

- after WWII, the Civil War ended in a CCP


- Chiang retreated to Taiwan and established the

      Republic of China


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