1. The Rise of European World Dominance and Industrial Society 


I. The First Phase of European Expansion in the Age

   of Discovery 

   A. Motives for European Expansion 

           - God, Glory, Gold


   B. Patterns of European Expansion 

         1) Portugal

             - expansion along the coasts of Africa and in

    Asia based on trade and trade settlements


         2) Spain

             - expansion in the West based on colonization

    and the direct exploitation of native resources

    and people

             - the colonies provided cheap raw materials and

    agricultural goods as well as markets for more

    costly European manufactured goods


         3) Other European powers followed:

             - England, France and the Netherlands


   C. Outcome 

         1) The development of a New World System in which

  the European colonial powers that comprised its

  core profited from unequal exchanges with the

  regions in the periphery


         2) A legacy of dependency as colonies became

 dependent on the importation of manufactured

 goods in exchange for their raw materials and

 agricultural goods


         3) This dependency continues even after

  independence was achieved during the first half

  of the 19th century


II. The Industrial Revolution

     A. Main Features 

           1) The Factory System

                - a shift from hand tools to power driven

machinery in the production of goods for

the market


           2) Expansion of capitalist activity from merchant

    capitalism to industrial capitalism

                - capitalism > an economic system based on

the accumulation and investment of large

sums of money for the purpose of

                        making more money


            3) Self-sustained and self-seeded growth


            4) A Slow Process


     B. Consequences of the Industrial Revolution 

            - Created a new and ever expanding need for raw

  materials and markets as well as investment



III. Legacy of the French Revolution (1789-1815) 

     A. Liberalism

- Political liberty > constitutional, representative


            - Economic liberty > freedom from government

   intervention (laissez-faire)


    B. Nationalism 

           1) nationalism > a state of mind rising out of an

    awareness of being part of a community that has

    common institutions, traditions, language and/or


                - this community, the nation, demands one's

highest loyalty and devotion

                - like a religion, it provokes a sense of purpose

and community, a cause  worthy of self-



           2) intensification of national rivalries

                - promotes Imperialism and increases

international conflict

                - jingoism

IV. Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution 

   A. Social Division based on class 

           1) Bourgeoisie > those who have an independent

   economic status; those who own the means of

   production; those who are professionals


           2) Proletariat > the urban working class - those who

   work for wages


     B. Development of Socialist Thought 

           1) Socialism > an attempt to harness the economic

    power of the Industrial Revolution for the benefit

    of society as a whole


           2) Some approaches to socialism:

                - creation of voluntary co-operative communities

(Robert Owen)

                - establishment of a state directed economy


                - establishment of a state/worker owned and

directed economy (Marx)


       C. Development of Mass Society 

               - Mass politics > greater political participation

      with the expansion of suffrage and the

      development of political parties

               - Mass consumerism

               - Mass communication

               - Mass mobilization


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