16. China under Communism

 

A. Civil War (1946-1949)

    - brought the Communists to power and resulted

         in the creation of the People’s Republic of China

 

B. The New State Has Evolved Through Four Phases:

    1) the “democratic revolution”  (1949-1953)

            - consolidation of Communist rule

            - government included Communists and

                non-Communists

 

    2) the Socialist transformation (1953-1961)

            - collectivization of agriculture;

            - nationalization of industry;

            - The Great Leap Forward

 

3) The Second Revolution (1962-1976)

            - The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution:

                to complete the revolution from socialism

                to communism

 

 4) “Market Socialism” > liberalization of the economy

            - Outcome > the creation of a mass-mobilizing

                authoritarian state that was egalitarian and

                development oriented

 

C. The Post-Mao Era

    1) Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997) – became China’s

             “prominent leader”

 

    2) Reaction against Mao’s cult of personality > the

              trial of the Gang of Four

 

     3) Economic Reform:

            - command economy retained, but small private

                business and foreign investment allowed and

                agriculture communes dismantled

 

    4) Economic liberalism raised hopes of political and

            economic liberalism

            - Beijing’s Tiananmen Square  (1989) > massacre

                of hundreds and  possibly thousands of students

 

    5) Economic growth > 1991 growth rates indicate by

                2010 China will again become the world’s

                largest economy