13. The Cold War


A. Development

     1. The Greek Civil War (1946-1947)

            a) Greek Communist forces aided

by the Soviet dominated countries of Albania,

Bulgaria and Yugoslavia vs. Greek Anti-Communist

forces aided by England


            b) Truman Doctrine

- England withdrew its support due to postwar   

economic problems; fearful of Soviet  expansion

Truman proclaimed the Truman Doctrine:

“ It must be the policy of the U.S. to support free

peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation

by armed minorities or by outside pressures.”

- Introduced the policy of containment toward

    the Soviet Union and aid was given to Greece


     2. Marshall Plan (June 1947)

- Economic aid given to Europe for rebuilding

     vs. Soviet expansion

            - helped with U.S. postwar economy since loans

                 were to used to buy American made goods

            - $74 billion in aid enabled the European Economic

                 Miracle of the postwar years


     3. Military Alliances

- NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)

    founded in 1949 to “Keep the Americans in, the

    Russians out and the Germans down.”

            - Warsaw Pact created in 1955 as a response to



B. Confrontations

     1. Establishment of the Peoples Republic of China

     (1949) heightened tensions between U.S. and



     2. Korean War (1950-1953) 

     - WWII left Korea divided between the

occupying armies of the U.S. and U.S.S.R. >

each established a client regime

                 - the U.S. fought under a U. N. dictate

                      alongside other U. N. forces and succeeded

preventing the creation of a pro-Soviet regime in South Korea

                 - 38th Parallel divides the Koreas

                 - a peace treaty has never been signed


     3. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

     - President Kennedy opposed the installation of

          Soviet missiles in Cuba

                 - nuclear confrontation appeared likely

     - Khrushchev backed down, missiles were



      4. Viet Nam War (1964-1973)

     - after WWII France refused to recognize the

         independence movement led by Ho Chi Minh

                 - France supported by U.S. fought for 8 years;

                     when France pulled out the U.S. continued to


- the U.S. was unsuccessful in halting the

    expansion of communism


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